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Chornobyl Initiatives Reports and Publications Photo Library Nuclear Reactor Profiles and Accomplishments About our Program Web site sections
- Introduction
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- RBMK-1000
- VVER-1000
- VVER-440/230 / 213
- Russia
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Reactor Types: | RBMK | VVER 440/213 | VVER 440/230 | VVER 1000

Reactor
Cutaway VVER-440 Model 213

The VVER-440 Model V213 was designed between 1970 and 1980. The development of this design coincided with the first uniform safety requirements drawn up by Soviet designers.

Principal Strengths:

  • Upgraded Accident Localization System vastly improved over the earlier VVER-440 Model V230 design, comparable to several Western plants, and using a vapor-suppression confinement structure called a "bubbler-condenser" tower.

  • Addition of emergency core-cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems.

  • Reactor pressure vessel with stainless-steel internal lining to alleviate much concern about the vessel embrittlement associated with the earlier VVER-440 Model V230 design.

  • Improved coolant pump, and continued use of six coolant loops (providing multiple paths for cooling the reactor) and horizontal steam generators (for better heat transfer) with large coolant volume.

  • Standardization of plant components, providing extensive operating experience for many parts and making possible incremental improvements and backfits of components.

    Principal Deficiencies:

  • Plant instrumentation and controls--for example, reactor-protection systems and diagnostics--behind Western standards. Significant variations exist among countries with VVER-440 Model V213 plants.

  • Separation of plant safety systems (to help assure that an event in one system will not interfere with the operation of others), fire protection, and protection for control-room operators improved over Model V230 plants, but generally below Western standards.

  • Poor leak-tightness of confinement.

  • Unknown quality of plant equipment and construction, due to lack of documentation on design, manu facturing and construction, and reported instances of poor-quality materials being re-worked at plant sites.

  • Major variations in operating and emergency procedures, operator training, and operational safety (for example, use of control-room simulators) among plants. These aspects of plant operations depend primarily on the organization or country operating Model V213 plants rather than on the plant supplier. Some coun tries have added safety features to their Model V213 plants.

  • Reactor Types: | RBMK | VVER 440/213 | VVER 440/230 | VVER 1000


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