The VVER-440 Model V213 was
designed between 1970 and 1980. The development of this design
coincided with the first uniform safety requirements drawn up by Soviet
Localization System vastly improved over the earlier VVER-440 Model V230
design, comparable to several Western plants, and using a
vapor-suppression confinement structure called a "bubbler-condenser"
Addition of emergency core-cooling and auxiliary
Reactor pressure vessel with stainless-steel
internal lining to alleviate much concern about the vessel embrittlement
associated with the earlier VVER-440 Model V230 design.
Improved coolant pump, and continued use of six coolant loops (providing
multiple paths for cooling the reactor) and horizontal steam generators
(for better heat transfer) with large coolant volume.
Standardization of plant components, providing extensive operating
experience for many parts and making possible incremental improvements
and backfits of components.
Plant instrumentation and controls--for example, reactor-protection
systems and diagnostics--behind Western standards. Significant
variations exist among countries with VVER-440 Model V213 plants.
Separation of plant safety systems (to help assure that an event in
one system will not interfere with the operation of others), fire
protection, and protection for control-room operators improved over Model
V230 plants, but generally below Western standards.
leak-tightness of confinement.
Unknown quality of plant
equipment and construction, due to lack of documentation on design, manu
facturing and construction, and reported instances of poor-quality
materials being re-worked at plant sites.
Major variations in
operating and emergency procedures, operator training, and operational
safety (for example, use of control-room simulators) among plants.
These aspects of plant operations depend primarily on the organization
or country operating Model V213 plants rather than on the plant supplier.
Some coun tries have added safety features to their Model V213