Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant
Size: 42,822 square miles (slightly larger than Tennessee)
Population1: 8.2 million (1999 est.)
Gross Domestic Product1: $33.6 billion (1998 est.)
(purchasing power parity)
Gross Domestic Product per Capita: $4,100 (1998 est.)
Electricity Production1: 38.4 billion kWh (1998 est.)
Electricity Consumption per Capita: 4,700 kWh (1998 est.)
Total Installed Generating Capacity (1998)2: 12,310 MW
Thermal-Fired Plants: 7,150 MW (58%)
Nuclear Plants: 3,760 MW (31%)
Hydroelectric Plants: 1,400 MW (11%)
1 CIA Fact Book.
2 Energy Information Administration, 1999. www.eia.doe.gov
Bulgaria's Nuclear Power Program
Bulgaria operates six units at its Kozloduy nuclear power plant-four VVER-440/230s
and two VVER-1000s. Bulgaria has announced that Kozloduy Units 1 and 2 will
be shut down before 2003. In 1999, nuclear power supplied 47 percent of the
country's electricity. However, that share has often risen to nearly 50 percent
because fossil fuel power plants and hydropower plants have not achieved expected
Bulgaria's Key Nuclear Organizations
- Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes - Bulgarian
nuclear regulatory authority.
- State Agency for Energy and Energy Resources - agency that is the equivalent
to U.S. Department of Energy; responsible for all energy-related matters in
Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant
Plant Manager: Iordan Iordanov
Telephone No.: 359-973-72020
Scope and Status of Activities
Efforts to improve safety at the Kozloduy plant were initiated in 1991 with
funds received from the U.S. Agency for International Development. These early
efforts, which focused on improving the safety of day-to-day operations and
improving the physical conditions at the plant, included projects on developing
procedures and practices that improve operational safety (1991-1994); improving
fire-fighting capabilities (1991-1993); and upgrading engineered safety systems
Later efforts include seismic analysis of buildings and systems essential to
safe operation of the plant (1995-1998); developing and implementing a configuration
management system (1995-1999); supporting development of a training center (1996-2000);
and developing and enhancing capabilities for performing plant safety analyses
Management and Operational Safety
- Processes, hardware, and software were transferred to the plant for developing
internationally accepted emergency operating instructions (EOIs) that promote
safety through improved accident mitigation strategies.
- All emergency operating instructions for the VVER-440/230 reactors and the
VVER-1000 reactors were completed. A series of workshops was completed to
support the development of an EOI regulatory infrastructure.
- A complete set of 16 management and operational control procedures that
promote safety through improved operating practices were developed and implemented
at the plant.
- A configuration management system was developed for the plant.
- The transfer of the Systematic Approach to Training methodology and training
materials developed at the Balakovo and Khmelnytskyy Training Centers is ongoing
at the Kozloduy plant. This training methodology provides a standard framework
for identifying training needs, developing course materials, and teaching.
The approach combines classroom instruction with the use of hands-on equipment,
including a full-scope simulator. A seminar on Systematic Approach to Training
was held for management personnel to ensure familiarity with and support for
- Pilot training courses for Shift Supervisors, Reactor Repair Technicians,
Mechanical Maintenance personnel, and Control Room Reactor Operators were
developed and implemented at the plant. Work was initiated to develop a training
course for use of emergency operating instructions.
- Simulator instructor training was provided at the plant.
- The Configuration Management project provided equipment needed to support
implementation of improved configuration management processes at the Shore
Pumping Station and Electrical Switchyard facilities. The upgraded configuration
management program was implemented at the Shore Pumping Station. The plant
will implement the new program at the Electrical Switchboard without U.S.
Engineering and Technology Upgrades
- A backup emergency diesel generator was delivered to the plant. The generator
provides backup power for operation of key safety systems, should an emergency
disable both offsite electrical power and other onsite sources.
- A fire truck, communications equipment, and radiation monitoring equipment
were provided to the plant to improve the response capability of the fire
Plant Safety Evaluations
A seismic assessment of the buildings that route key electrical cables
for Units 5 and 6 was completed. The assessment identified structural supports
that could be vulnerable in an earthquake and recommended meas-
ures to strengthen the supports and anchor the cables.
A seismic assessment of the plant's essential service water system that
provides cooling for safety-related equipment outside the reactor containment
areas was completed. The assessment provided recommendations to reduce the
seismic vulnerability of pipes and valves.
Training was provided to Bulgarian technical specialists to enable them
to evaluate the potential for combustion/detonation of hydrogen, which could
threaten the plant's containment integrity during accident scenarios.
Computers, safety codes, and training were provided to improve the safety
analysis capability at the plant. Thermohydraulic models for the VVER-440
and VVER-1000 units were developed and validated.
- A series of training workshops (including a month-long short course) was
completed to assist the Bulgarian analytical organizations in completing the
thermohydraulic analysis that will validate the operator actions contained in the
emergency operating instructions.